Sonic does not need any technological enhancements to create his super-speed - he's able to run fast with or without his shoes- but the Power Sneakers are nonetheless a crucial part of his equipment. The unique material allows Sonic to let loose and run flat-out to reach the farthest edge of his incredible potential - without flaying his feet to the bone through friction burns!
Created by an unknown process, the Power Sneakers were given to Sonic as a gift from Doctor Kintobor. It was during a treadmill-test of the Sneakers that Sonic first broke the sound barrier, and the extreme forces involved streamlined him into his present blue shape.
Sonic has multiple pairs of Power Sneakers - be reassured that he can't be defeated and be perpetually stunted by something so basic as someone making off with his shoes!