Amy Rose and Tekno the Canary discovered a catapult in a 5000AD museum. With power down throughout the whole city, the heroes used the ancient device to defeat culprit Gremlyn. Presumably preloaded with a massive boulder, the girls fired the rock at Gremlyn and defeated the robot.
Catapults have also found more unorthodox uses in Sonic the Comic. In Grounded, Tails was attempting to pull back a palm tree in the Aquatic Ruin Zone so that he could swat a Spider-Moth out of the sky. Unfortunately, the cable snapped, sending Tails flying through the air and into the Badnik.